By Lillian Hoddeson, Ernst Braun, Jurgen Teichmann, Spencer Weart
This landmark paintings chronicles the starting place and evolution of stable nation physics, which grew to adulthood among 1920 and 1960. The booklet examines the early roots of the sphere in business, medical and creative efforts and lines them throughout the Fifties, whilst many physicists worldwide well-known themselves as contributors of a different subfield of physics learn founded on solids. The publication opens with an account of medical and social advancements that preceded the invention of quantum mechanics, together with the discovery of recent experimental ability for learning solids and the institution of the 1st commercial laboratories. The authors set the level for the trendy period by way of detailing the formula of the quantum box idea of solids. The center of the e-book examines six significant issues: the band thought of solids; the phenomenology of imperfect crystals; the puzzle of the plastic houses of solids, solved through the invention of dislocations; magnetism; semiconductor physics; and collective phenomena, the context during which outdated puzzles similar to superconductivity and superfluidity have been ultimately solved. All readers attracted to the historical past of technological know-how will locate this soaking up quantity an important source for knowing the emergence of latest physics.
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Extra info for Out of the Crystal Maze: Chapters from The History of Solid State Physics
In particular, knowledge of elasticity and the strength of materials was crucial for such mechanical-engineering tasks as constructing railways and erecting large buildings of iron and reinforced concrete. 16 In the 1870s, many of these engineering schools set up laboratories for materials testing, where properties of iron and steel became the principal object of intensive research. The practical goals were explicitly promoted by new social organizations in which engineers were coming together.
The events that we do discuss usually appear as unconnected incidents because they were not connected except by the broadest economic and intellectual themes, and it is only hindsight that singles out these examples as parts of an eventual solid-state physics. A mosaic representation is almost inevitable in any case when several authors with varying backgrounds and interests write a single chapter. But we hope the very heterogeneity of the mosaic will show how solid-state ideas emerged from a multitude of contexts and were combined into subtle patterns that can be comprehended only from a distance.
These industries required an international effort in measurement, calibration of instruments, and standards, all based on proven scientific principles; thus practical investigation of materials moved into the realm of physics. For example, physics principles and experiments were required by those who calibrated thermometers by using the temperature dependence of the electrical resistance of certain materials. Other problems were found, according to the foreword of Friedrich Kohlrausch's textbook of practical physics, published at the end of the century, "in the subtler parts of optics, in photometry and thermal radiation; but especially in the theory of electricity, where...
Out of the Crystal Maze: Chapters from The History of Solid State Physics by Lillian Hoddeson, Ernst Braun, Jurgen Teichmann, Spencer Weart