By Tamara L. Whited, Mark R. Stoll, Jens Ivo Engels, Richard C. Hoffmann, Hilde Ibsen, Wybren Verstegen
Of curiosity to scholars and lecturers alike, this booklet presents a much-needed synthesis of the hot literature on northern Europe's environmental background. starting with the Paleolithic interval and the recolonization of Europe after the Ice Age, this booklet maps out the most important environmental developments within the heritage of the region's setting and its interplay with the human population.
The publication additionally highlights how dramatic occasions open air Europe, comparable to the Tomboro volcanic eruption in Indonesia in 1815, had dramatic effects for the region's weather. Given the culturally diversified nature of contemporary Europe, a necessary element of the e-book is its identity of the typical issues that unite the interplay of the region's geographical regions with the typical environment.
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Additional info for Northern Europe: An Environmental History
Bronze artifacts, ranging from neck rings and bracelets to swords, daggers, axes, and ultimately sickles, were prized over stone items for the greater flexibility in size and shape allowed by molten metal. Although metal is softer than stone, the added tin increased copper’s hardness. However, few people possessed metallurgical skills, and the raw materials were less ubiquitous than stone. Common in Spain, England, Ireland, mountainous central Europe, and the Urals, copper is nonexistent along the North European Plain and Scandinavia, and rare in France.
The fully tailored fur suit probably first clad a European somewhere between Sunghir and Germany. Figurines from a number of eastern European sites are themselves well clad. Thus, by the last glacial maximum, humans managed to protect their bodies from the cold; consequently, caloric needs did not necessarily rise much in the colder weather. Where human groups were able to subsist, they did not cease to live in large, open-air settlements during the icy end of the Paleolithic. Evidence for new modes of transportation remains Adaptations across Millennia speculative, but Europeans possibly developed sledges, skis, and showshoes at this time.
Neolithic farmers did not fully re-create the mosaic landscape bequeathed to them by the Mesolithic, though they did clear more and larger openings in the forest with polished stone axes and by ring-barking and burning, leaving larger stumps to rot. The composition of the ancient wildwood remained intact. Far from being an unmitigated enemy, the forest provided pasturage for pigs and cattle, the latter grazing on edge grasses and munching on twigs, leaves, and young saplings. Ancient Britons practiced coppicing, allowing the cut stump of a deciduous tree to send up shoots used for cattle food, poles, and other purposes.
Northern Europe: An Environmental History by Tamara L. Whited, Mark R. Stoll, Jens Ivo Engels, Richard C. Hoffmann, Hilde Ibsen, Wybren Verstegen