By Dieter Krause, Hans Bach
This thoroughly revised version positive aspects new sections on glass-ceramic functions and their functionality, CDC-grinding, and laser gyroscopes containing Zerodur®., offering an outline of Schott's actions for scientists, engineers, and bosses.
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Additional info for Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics (Schott Series on Glass and Glass Ceramics)
Another result of nucleation research was the discovery of the synergistic eﬀect of mixed nucleating agents. 56] showed that combinations of both nucleating agents TiO2 and ZrO2 result in a better nucleation of the parent glasses than does the same concentration of just one of them. They lead to glass ceramics with ﬁner grained microstructures and a higher transparency. 57] found that the nucleation is favored if only one single nucleating-agent crystal phase can be observed beside the main crystal phase of the glass ceramic after crystallization.
6. 0 200 100 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Nucleation time /min Fig. 14. 0 700 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Nucleation time /min Fig. 15. 5% TiO2 are so short that they fall below the limit of observation for certain temperature intervals. This means that in these cases nuclei are formed as early as during the short heating process of some seconds. Fur- 36 2. The Scientiﬁc Basis Crystal density (crystals /mm3) thermore, Fig. 15 shows that a signiﬁcant diminution of the nucleation area occurs with decreasing concentration of TiO2 .
11. Boundaries for 80 70 60 50 40 16h 30 8h 4h 2h 1h 20 45 min 10 620 640 660 680 700 720 740 760 Nucleation temperature /˚C Fig. 12. Dependence of the transmission at λ = 450 nm on the nucleation temperature for various nucleation times Nucleation temperature /˚C 34 2. The Scientiﬁc Basis 850 800 750 tr=40% ρ=2000 700 tr=60% tr=80% ρ=1 650 600 100 101 102 103 Nucleation time /min Fig. 13. TTT diagram of nucleation with crystal density lines and lines for various degrees of transmission (tr) longer nucleation times were determined by the transmission experiments with gradient rods.
Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics (Schott Series on Glass and Glass Ceramics) by Dieter Krause, Hans Bach