By Andrew Webster
This article offers a complete advent to the most recent debates within the sociology of improvement, linking theoretical and empirical problems with social switch basically although now not completely via connection with the 3rd international. This booklet covers normal conceptions of modernisation and underdevelopment and issues to new makes an attempt at their synthesis in addition to exploring the coverage implications of alternative improvement types.
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Extra info for Introduction to the Sociology of Development
At the heart of this approach lies a desire for social justice and welfare based on a concern that the material resources of a society should be distributed more evenly throughout the population. This includes all the assets or resources of the society, including 'public goods' (government funded services such as hospitals and schools) and capital for investment in agricultural or industrial enterprise. For rural regions this new approach stresses the need for land reform to make land available for poorer farmers, opening up new farmland and making cheap loans or grants available to the rural households.
Durkheim tried to answer this question in his doctoral thesis, which subsequently became his first major book, The Division of Labour in Society, published in 1893. In this he proposes that there are two basic types of society, the 'traditional' and the 'modern' which have very different forms of social cohesion between their members. The people of a traditional society perform the limited tasks of a simple agrarian community based on groups of families or clans in village settlements. One village is like any other in what people do, think and believe.
It seems reasonable to suggest that these rural and urban strategies for relieving deprivation and satisfying basic needs have much in common with the view of poverty as 'relative deprivation' discussed earlier in this chapter. This is indicated in a number of ways, perhaps most clearly in its combining material with social needs to encourage great participation in the economy and culture of a society. This echoes Townsend's concept of 'participation' and is premised on the assumption that the provision of the human 'rights' of employment and political involvement in decisionmaking are basic needs of every individual in any society.
Introduction to the Sociology of Development by Andrew Webster