By Jim A Wingate
The writer is your individual mentor who explains why and the way whereas instructing almost certainly harmful classes in physics and engineering layout. Spared the embarrassment of painful errors, you achieve sensible wisdom from frank, colourful instances and discover ways to remedy mechanical difficulties regarding hydraulics, pipe circulate, and business HVAC and software platforms
Read Online or Download Hydraulics, Pipe Flow, Industrial HVAC And Utility Systems - Vol 1 PDF
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Additional info for Hydraulics, Pipe Flow, Industrial HVAC And Utility Systems - Vol 1
03 for turbulent flow in pipes, and although it does not vary especially strongly in normal practice, its precise value depends on Reynolds number and degree of pipe wall surface roughness. 018 or thereabouts, with 105 < NRE < 106. The equivalent Hazen-Williams “C” will range from about C = 140 for new clean steel pipe to C = 100 for rough old iron walls. 00 ft/ft pipe. , compressed” into an all-liquid continuum, in which no breakup occurs. The downward flow velocity must therefore stabilize at a value abnormally high compared to bulk flow velocity in normal “pumped” piping systems.
Our assumption of unaccelerated flow inside the pipe means that (Vc)2/2g = (Vg)2/2g ft liquid, so the velocity head terms cancel out of the equation. (This would not be true if, contrary to our initial assumption, the actual condition in the downcomer were “gravity flow” as illustrated in Figure 3-1, because acceleration due to gravity and breakup of the water column would occur. The fluid would be a raining mixture of liquid, flashed vapor, and sucked-in air from the atmosphere. Finally, no matter what reference system you choose for the “Z” elevation head terms, you arrive at: (Zc – Zg–) = vertical length “Ldown” of the downcomer pipe, measured from point “c” to point “g”, in units of feet.
This is a very handy relationship. Tabulations of the pipe friction head loss gradient versus volumetric flowrate for the range of commercially available pipe sizes and most common material surface roughness conditions are commonly published in various formats. Some widely available favorites I’ve used since 1973 are Condensed Hydraulic Data published by the Cameron Pump Division of Ingersoll-Rand Corp, and equivalent data found on the circular slide rule-type B&G System Syzer Calculator which has been distributed by ITT Bell & Gossett for many years.
Hydraulics, Pipe Flow, Industrial HVAC And Utility Systems - Vol 1 by Jim A Wingate