By Johan Leman, Stef Janssens
Via exceptional entry to over a hundred courtroom documents and sentences, and interviews with police and safety body of workers in either starting place and vacation spot nations, this booklet offers the main complete exploration to this point of human trafficking and migrant smuggling in japanese Europe and Russia.
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Additional resources for Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling in Southeast Europe and Russia: Learning Criminal Entrepreneurship and Traditional Culture
Some of them worked together in the past in a security service, while others simply wanted to earn a great deal of money in a very short time. Such people can also be found in some Bulgarian, Russian and other Eastern European networks (Uehling, 2004; Williams & Picarelli, 2001). These networks are based on trust in each other’s reputation and on mutual familiarity due to former collaborations. They exploit niches created by social dysfunctions in the control of the economic trafﬁc (Cillufo & Salmoiraghi, 1999; CSIS, 1997; Deutch, 1996; Finckenauer & Voronin, 2001; Finckenauer & Waring, 1998; Friedman, 2000; Jensen, 1999; Shelley, 2004; Varese, 2001; Voronin, 2000; Williams, 2000).
Moreover, the same network can sometimes be found in more than one ﬁle. 1 at page 3. In a case dating from 1999, the fathers of two different Albanian families played an important conciliation role between the two criminal groups. After a shoot-out between the two clans, there was a meeting between the two fathers who would together decide on war or peace. They reached a settlement which everyone had to strictly observe afterwards. Clan networks are based on so-called blood relationships, characterized by ‘individualized trust’.
As we see from the Albanian case of 1999 (the fathers of two different families intervening), a dispute between criminals can be sorted out by a clan leader who himself has no relationship with the criminal activities. According to the Kanun, the older men – generally the fathers – must be willing to take on a crucial role in internal conﬂicts. They have to take the decisions on behalf of the family and all family members must observe these absolutely and with complete respect. What would an authentic Kanun culture be?
Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling in Southeast Europe and Russia: Learning Criminal Entrepreneurship and Traditional Culture by Johan Leman, Stef Janssens