By Alfi Moscovici
The Analog to electronic Converters characterize one half the hyperlink among the area we are living in - analog - and the electronic global of desktops, that could deal with the computations required in electronic sign processing. those units are mathematically very complicated as a result of their nonlinear habit and hence particularly tricky to research with out using simulation instruments. High pace A/DConverters: knowing information Converters via SPICE provides the topic from the training engineer's viewpoint instead of from the academic's perspective. a pragmatic technique is emphasised.
High pace A/D Converters: figuring out information Converters via SPICE is meant as a studying software by way of delivering construction blocks that may be stacked on most sensible of one another to construct greater order platforms. The booklet presents a advisor to realizing many of the topologies utilized in A/D converters by means of suggesting basic equipment for the blocks utilized in an A/D converter. The converters mentioned during the publication represent a category of units known as undersampled or Nyquist converters.
The instruments utilized in deriving the implications provided are:
- TopSpice® by way of Penzar - a combined mode SPICE simulator - model 5.90. The records incorporated in Appendix A have been written for this instrument. besides the fact that, so much circuit records want purely minor alterations for use on different SPICE simulators equivalent to PSpice, Hspice, IS_Spice and Micro-Cap IV;
- Mathcad 2000 - specialist through Mathsoft. This software is especially valuable in appearing FFT research in addition to drawing a number of the graphs. back, the mathcad records are integrated to aid the consumer examine the knowledge.
High velocity A/D Converters:Understanding facts Converters via SPICE not just provides the versions for the A/D converters for SPICE software but in addition describes the actual purposes for the converter's performance.
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Extra resources for High Speed A/D Converters: Understanding Data Converters Through SPICE
The graph for the bipolar pair is plotted assuming 50 mV of degeneration for the pair The CMOS pair current is scaled with the help of ISS and so the curves can be shown on the same scale and their comparable behavior can be observed. Figure 2-2. Differential pair transconductance curve: CMOS pair (solid line) and Bipolar pair (dashed line) 30 Chapter 2 The first comparator macro-model we consider is intended to model a bipolar comparator. 2. The resulting Spice model we propose is based on this simple equation and is shown in the figure 2 - 3.
The leakage error comes about because the A/D data is not harmonically related to the window length. Adjusting the window to include an integer number of cycles can eliminate this error. The form that the leakage takes depends on the shape of the window. By changing the window shape in the time domain and reducing the discontinuities at its edges we can significantly reduce the leakage. Several windows are classically used for the non-coherent test (39). 5 dB) (39, 43) • Bartlett window (with side lobes of –27 dB) (39) • Hann window (with side lobes of –32 dB) (39, 43) • Hamming window (with side lobes of –43 dB) (39,43) • Blackman window (with side lobes of –57 dB) (39) • Kaiser filters (with side lobes -30 to -90 dB depending on the (39) • Dolph filters (with side lobes -40 to -80 dB depending on the (39) factor) factor) The rectangular window is the standard acquisition window with a weight of 1 inside the window and zero outside the window.
2. For a 1K point FFT with the same infinite resolution A/D, the SINAD is 12 dB lower than the 4K FFT. 6 dB (or less than 7 effective bit performance). This example demonstrates the importance of careful choice in the number of data points for a noncoherent test of A/D and the result of such test when the data is truncated and zero padded. In general when a user is interested in improving the noise floor observability in any A/D converter the time domain record needs to be increased. The noise floor for such a converter is improved to: where n is the number of time points and N is the converter resolution.
High Speed A/D Converters: Understanding Data Converters Through SPICE by Alfi Moscovici