By Sharif Gemie
Relocating clear of a Paris-centric view of the rustic, this booklet examines advancements which opened up throughout France, together with stories of rural socialism in Mediterranean France and peasant monarchism within the West.
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Extra resources for French Revolutions, 1815-1914
Given the atmosphere of panic and confusion, few made use of this opportunity: historians generally estimate that only between 10 per cent and 15 per cent actually voted. Following this unique episode, the Jacobins turned to rule by revolutionary dictatorship, and were then in turn replaced by the Directory (1795) which returned to the previous model of representative, but not democratic, republican govern- Page 11 ment. In the nineteenth century, republicans usually accepted the principle of male-democracy.
During the early 1790s many of the new revolutionary groups began to aim their appeals at the mass population. Few responded, but none the less a new model of political organisation, the club, had been created. Governments were often worried by the implications of this model: from 1792 onwards, laws were passed to restrict both access to clubs and activities undertaken by clubs. These restrictions were codified in the Code Napoléon of 1804, which banned all associations of more than twenty people, unless they were specially authorised.
16. Raymond Huard, La Naissance du parti politique en France (Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, 1996), p. 44. Page 15 Chapter 2 1830, The Liberal Revolution The Revolution of 1830 defies easy definition. To Victor Hugo, a royalist novelist, playwright and poet who converted to liberalism in the late 1820s, it was simply 'the people . . lashing out'. 2 An older study, discussing the Revolution's social consequences, argues that political power remained with the same groups landowners, office holders and professional men before and after 1830.
French Revolutions, 1815-1914 by Sharif Gemie