By Yoad Winter
Because the early paintings of Montague, Boolean semantics and its subfield of generalized quantifier thought became the model-theoretic starting place for the research of that means in typical languages. This e-book makes use of this framework to boost a new semantic idea of crucial linguistic phenomena related to coordination, plurality, and scope. The proposed conception uses the normal Boolean interpretation of conjunction, a choice-function account of indefinites, and a singular semantics of plurals that's not in keeping with the distributive/collective contrast. the foremost to unifying those mechanisms is a model of Montagovian semantics that's augmented by means of flexibility rules: semantic operations that experience no counterpart in phonology.This is the 1st booklet to hide those components in a fashion that's either linguistically complete and officially particular. On one hand, it addresses questions of basically linguistic predicament: the semantic services of phrases like and and or in numerous languages, the translation of indefinites and their scope, and the semantic typology of noun words and predicates. nonetheless, it addresses formal questions which are encouraged by means of the remedy of those linguistic difficulties: using Boolean algebras in linguistics, the right kind formalization of selection services inside of generalized quantifier concept, and the extension of this conception to the area of plurality. whereas essentially meant for readers with a historical past in theoretical linguistics, the booklet may also be of curiosity to researchers and complicated scholars in common sense, computational linguistics, philosophy of language, and synthetic intelligence.
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Extra info for Flexibility Principles in Boolean Semantics: The Interpretation of Coordination, Plurality, and Scope in Natural Language (Current Studies in Linguistics)
Introduction 17 that maps any non-empty set (predicate) to an element of this set. Thus, if f is a CF and A is any non-empty set, then f (A) is an element of A. Reinhart proposes that indeﬁnites are syntactically free in their scopal behaviour because their interpretation involves existential quantiﬁcation over CFs that can occur at any compositional level. For instance, the indeﬁnite in sentence (9a), restated below, is scopally ambiguous because existential quantiﬁcation over CFs can occur either within the scope of the conditional, as informally paraphrased in (23a), or outside the scope of the conditional, as in (23b).
B. The women are outnumbered by the men. The two sentences in (40) do not seem equivalent. Sentence (40a) is entailed by (41) below given the additional information. However, this apparently does not hold for (40b). (41) The authors are outnumbered by the men and the athletes are outnumbered by the men. Schwarzschild (1996: 99) claims that also the sentences in (40) are in fact semantically equivalent. According to Schwarzschild, the difference between these sentences should follow from a pragmatic theory of distributivity.
29) #The bridge is small and big. (30) #The bridge is small and the bridge is big. The standard boolean account takes (29) to be equivalent to (30). Given the plausible assumption that the denotations of the predicates small and big are disjoint, the oddness of (29) is explained by its being a contradiction. However, in Krifka’s proposal, (29) is no longer equivalent to (30). In fact, it may reasonably follow from (31): (31) The bridge is big. This unwelcome prediction arises because if a tiny part b1 of a big bridge b is taken, the remaining part, b2, is still big.
Flexibility Principles in Boolean Semantics: The Interpretation of Coordination, Plurality, and Scope in Natural Language (Current Studies in Linguistics) by Yoad Winter