By Thomas Arny, Stephen Schneider
The 8th variation of Explorations: An creation to Astronomy strives to proportion with scholars a feeling of ask yourself concerning the universe and the dynamic, ever-changing technology of astronomy. Written for college students of assorted academic backgrounds, Explorations emphasizes present info, a visually fascinating paintings package deal, available writing, and accuracy. the hot variation additionally positive aspects the main whole expertise aid package deal provided with any astronomy textual content.
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THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun and nine planets form the Solar System. But smaller bod(moons) orbiting the planets, and asteroids and comets orbiting the Sim also populate the Solar System (Figure 1-5). ies — satellites its — 1-6 1 . A Sense of Scale Mercury 3. Earth 7. Uranus 5. Jupiter 2. Venus 6. Saturn 9. Pluto • i» • FIGURE 1-3 Portraits of the nine planets silhouettes size. All 1-6 A SENSE OF SCALE If the paths that the planets follow around the Sun were visible, we that the Solar System is like a huge set of nested elliptical centered approximately on the Sun and extending about 4 biloutward to Pluto's orbit.
Stars rise in the east, move Take a look across the sky, at the night sky, and and you set in the west, will exacdy see as the by watching the night sky for as litde as 10 the eastern horizon will have risen noticeably higher and stars near die western horizon will have sunk lower or disappeared. Likewise, if you look at a constellation, you see its stars rise as a fixed pattern in the east, move across the sky, and set in the west. In terms Sun does. minutes. You can 21 Astronomy verify this A star seen just above of our model of the heavens based on the celestial sphere, we therefore explain the rising and setting of stars as rotation of the celestial sphere around us (Figure M).
However, this was not mere pigheadedness. There was a good reason for not believing that the Earth moves around the Sun. If it did, the positions of stars should change during the course of the year. Looking at Figure 1-20, you can see that the star A should appear to lie at a different distance from and in a different position with respect to stars B and C in January and in July. This shift in a star's apparent position is called parallax, and Aristarchus's critics were absolutely right in supposing that it should occur.
Explorations - An Introduction to Astronomy by Thomas Arny, Stephen Schneider