By Suprakas Sinha Ray
This publication explores the main advancements, either in primary facets and functions, during this zone over the last 5-10 years. Chapters talk about many of the recommendations used to arrange environmentally pleasant polymer nanocomposites, their structural and morphological characterization, their superior mechanical and fabric homes, their melt-state rheological and crystallization habit, foam processing, biodegradability, and present functions and destiny affects of those materials.
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Extra resources for Environmentally friendly polymer nanocomposites: Types, processing and properties
Both forms of starch are polymers of α-d-glucose. Natural starches contain 10 to 20% amylase and 80 to 90% amylopectin. Amylose molecules (Fig. 2(a)) typically consist of 200 to 20 000 glucose units, which form a helix as a result of the bond angles between the glucose units. Aqueous solutions of amylase are unstable due to intermolecular attraction and association of neighboring amylase molecules. This instability leads to an increase in viscosity, retrogradation and, under specific conditions, precipitation of amylase particles occurs.
4 Molecular structure of cellulose. 5 Poly(hydroxyl butyrate) (PHB) Poly(hydroxyl butyrate) (PHB) is a naturally occurring polyester produced by numerous bacteria in nature as an intracellular reserve of carbon or energy. 5. 10 Since then, PHB has been found in a large number of bacteria. 25 In general, PHB is stiffer and more brittle than PP. 4. 5 Molecular structure of poly(hydroxyl butyrate). 4 Physical properties of various PHAs Polymera Glass transition temperature (°C) Melting temperature (°C) Tensile strength (MPa) Elongation at break (%) PHB P(HB-co-10%HV) P(HB-co-20%HV) P(HB-co-10%HHx) P(HB-co-17%HHx) 4 2 −5 −1 −2 177 150 135 127 120 43 25 20 21 20 5 20 100 400 850 a HV, 3-hydroxyvalerate; HHx, 3-hydroxyhexanoate The primary application of PHB is packaging material.
Have been used for the preparation of EFPNCs. However, the most common types are clays (both natural and synthetic) and CNTs. © Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2013 Introduction 21 The mechanical and material properties conferred by the nanoparticles (particularly clays) to the biodegradable polymer matrices are remarkable and have allowed EFPNC materials to commercially compete with traditional polymer composites, which are non-degradable. The most common property improvements are: • • • • • • • • • • tensile modulus and strength; flexural modulus and strength; melt-viscosity; crystallization temperature; heat-distortion temperature; oxygen gas and water vapor permeability; thermal stability and flammability; shrinkage and residual loss; electrical and thermal conductivity; biodegradability.
Environmentally friendly polymer nanocomposites: Types, processing and properties by Suprakas Sinha Ray