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The (Bi2O3)1−x(La2O3)x−y(TeO2)y solid solution has a major disadvantage in that the Te4+ ion is prone to reduction under relatively low oxygen partial pressures, which leads to electrolyte degradation and cell failure [87]. The conductivity also decreases with an increase in the TeO2 content. 3 Electrolyte Materials 27 likely to be a decrease in the oxygen ion vacancy concentration. At temperatures below 200 °C, the lower activation energy caused by oxygen ions migrating into the rhombohedral phase results in a higher conductivity than that in the fcc phase [85].

Despite the lack of a thorough understanding of the mechanism, the high conductivity was considered to be caused by strain, which can facilitate ionic mobility. However, it is not easy to construct a GDC and SDC membrane that is sufficiently dense to prevent gas leakage across both electrodes, which often occurs in traditional SOFCs [102]. Compared with the remaining rare-earth oxide-doped ceria, GDC and SDC are not prone to reduction. However, although a small reduction occurs when SDC acts as an electrolyte material, the stability and open-circuit voltage suffer greatly.

Several metal oxides, such as MnO2, Bi2O3, CuO, MoO3, Fe2O3, Li2O, and CoOx, are treated as effective sintering aids. In particular, TiO2 was also found by Chen to facilitate the sintering of ceria-based materials [126]. 9 electrolyte [127]. 9 as a sintering aid [127]. 06) composition was conducted by Pikalova in both air and hydrogen environments, and it was discovered that the optimal amount of TiO2 was 2 mol%, considering the sintering and electrical characteristics [128]. Li2O was also expected to be a promising sintering aid for GDC [129], and the addition of Li or Co was found to enhance the conductivity of GDC [130].

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Concepts Of Theoretical Solid State Physics by Altland & Simons

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