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By David R. Shanks, Douglas L. Medin and Keith J. Holyoak (Eds.)

ISBN-10: 008086385X

ISBN-13: 9780080863856

ISBN-10: 0125433344

ISBN-13: 9780125433341

The Psychology of studying and Motivation publishes empirical and theoretical contributions in cognitive and experimental psychology, starting from classical and instrumental stipulations to complicated studying and challenge fixing. This guest-edited certain quantity is dedicated to present learn and dialogue on associative as opposed to cognitive money owed of studying. Written via significant investigators within the box, subject matters contain all features of causal studying in an open discussion board within which varied methods are introduced jointly. Key gains* up to date evaluate of the literature * Discusses contemporary controversies * offers significant advances in knowing causal studying * Synthesizes contrasting methods * contains very important empirical contributions * Written by way of major researchers within the box

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Table I1 shows the contingencies and relevant conditional probabilities for the treatments we describe here. Although the original experiments included treatments involving a negative camouflage contingency, we will discuss only those using positive and zero contingencies. 5) or uncorrelated with safety (Ap = 0). 5 contingencies, which differed in outcome density. 25. 5. In the less dense contingency, outcomes occurred only in the presence of the camouflage. 5 and p(Safety1no Camouflage) = 0. 5 because it is analogous to the partial reinforcement contingency for the light used by Wagner et al.

Dickinson, Shanks, & Evenden, 1984). Subjects played a computer video game in which they estimated the causal effectivenessof two predictors of how safe a tank was from exploding. The experiments all involved 40 trials and on each trial a tank traveled through a minefield. , 1968) to hide the tanks from the mines. Camouflaging could make the tank either less visible or easier to see. Thus, the camouflage might make the tank more or less safe. In addition, the mines themselves could vary in effectiveness.

The conditional independence tests of the normative model from Table I1 also predict blocking in the 3- 1 treatment because both conditional Aps = 0. 5/-1 condition. The conditional Ap for the camouflage in the presence of the plane is zero, since the plane is a perfect predictor, but the conditional Ap for the camouflage in the absence of the plane is not defined because there are only camouflagepresent plane-absent trials. Each of these camouflage trials is paired with the outcome. If the focal set for the camouflage in the absence of the plane is then revised to include extra trial experience in which neither camouflaging nor outcomes occur, the conditional Ap for the camouflage would be positive and might even be very high.

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Causal Learning by David R. Shanks, Douglas L. Medin and Keith J. Holyoak (Eds.)


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