By Michael M. Woolfson
A textbook for the senior undergraduate or graduate scholar starting a major learn of X-ray crystallography. it is going to be of curiosity either to these desiring to develop into expert crystallographers and to these physicists, chemists, biologists, geologists, metallurgists and others who will use it as a device of their examine. All significant elements of crystallography are covered--the geometry of crystals and their symmetry, theoretical and sensible elements of diffracting X-rays by means of crystals and the way the knowledge will be analyzed to discover the symmetry of the crystal and its constitution. contains contemporary advances resembling the synchrotron as a resource of X-rays, tools of fixing buildings from strength facts and the whole diversity of concepts for fixing constructions from single-crystal info. machine courses are supplied for accomplishing many operations of data-processing and fixing crystal constructions together with through direct equipment. those courses are required for plenty of of the examples given on the finish of every bankruptcy yet can be utilized to create new examples wherein scholars can try out themselves or one another.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to X-ray Crystallography, Second Edition
First we calculate the total power scattered for each individual electron. In fig. 8 the point O represents the electron and OX the direction of the incident beam. 22) we have e2 - (1 + cos 2 y)I0 sin y dy. 24) For a material containing n electrons per unit volume immersed in a parallel incident beam of cross-sectional area /? the power of the incident beam is jS/0 (since 7 0, the intensity, is the power per unit area of the incident beam). / 0 , is called the scattering power of the material and is Fig.
30) The change of wavelength is seen to be independent of the wavelength of the incident radiation and depends only on the scattering angle. 048 A. While this change of wavelength is small it is quite significant for X-rays with wavelengths of the order of 1 A. Thomson- and Compton scattering are examples of that dichotomy in physics summed up by the phrase 'wave-particle duality'. Classical theory regards light as a wave motion and the scattered light as a continuous outpouring of radiation from the scatterer simultaneously in all directions.
As shown in the International Tables for X-ray Crystallography. 41 o+ t I t If I ^ ' * Origin on 2 The determination of a crystal structure is usually a major undertaking and the first task of the crystallographer is to determine the space group (chapter 7) and to familiarize himself with its characteristics. Some space groups occur frequently, for example P2Jc and P212121 are well known by most crystallographers; other space groups occur much more rarely and these would usually be studied, as required, on an ad hoc basis.
An Introduction to X-ray Crystallography, Second Edition by Michael M. Woolfson